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Book Title: Die Elementarteilchen Der Physik / Mathematische Analyse Von Formalstrukturen Von Werken Der Musik|
The author of the book: Otto Robert Frisch
ISBN 13: 9783322982285
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 25.15 MB
Edition: Vs Verlag Fur Sozialwissenschaften
Date of issue: January 1st 1963
Read full description of the books:The elementary building bricks of matter have long been known: the elec tron (1897), the proton (1911) and the neutron (1932); in addition, there was the quantum of radiation, the photon (1905), known to have a double nature with both wave and particle features. The bold idea (L. de Broglie, 1924) that streams of ordinary particles such as electrons should possess a similar double nature led to the development of wave mechanics; moreover, diffraction phenomena were found with beams of electrons, atoms and even molecules. Pauli's Exclusion Principle causes us to distinguish between fermions which obey the Exclusion Principle ("no two equal particles in the same quantum state"), and bosons which do not. Another distinction is that all fermions possess a spin of h/4n, which is indestructible because in quantum theory the spin of a system can change only by whole multiples of h/2n. In 1928 Dirac showed that the spin is a consequence of describing the electron by the simplest linear wave equation that is relativistically invar iant. A further consequence of his theory was the existence of positive elec trons, which were indeed soon observed. After that it was expected that to any fermion there should exist an anti-particle, and this has been fully con firmed in recent years.
Read information about the authorOtto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist. With his German-British collaborator Rudolf Peierls he designed the first theoretical mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in 1940.
Frisch was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1904, the son of Justinian Frisch, a painter, and Auguste Meitner Frisch, a concert pianist. He himself was talented at both but also shared his aunt Lise Meitner's love of physics and commenced a period of study at the University of Vienna, graduating in 1926 with some work on the effect of the newly discovered electron on salts. After some years working in relatively obscure laboratories in Germany, Frisch obtained a position in Hamburg under the Nobel Prize-winning scientist Otto Stern. Here he produced novel work on the diffraction of atoms (using crystal surfaces) and also proved that the magnetic moment of the proton was much larger than had been previously supposed.
The accession of Adolf Hitler to the chancellorship of Germany in 1933 made Otto Robert Frisch make the decision to move to London, where he joined the staff at Birkbeck College and worked with the physicist Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett on cloud chamber technology and artificial radioactivity. He followed this with a five-year stint in Copenhagen with Niels Bohr where he increasingly specialised in nuclear physics, particularly in neutron physics.
During the Christmas holiday in 1938 he visited his aunt Lise Meitner in Kungälv. While there she received the news that Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Berlin had discovered that the collision of a neutron with a uranium nucleus produced the element barium as one of its byproducts. Hahn, in a letter to Meitner, called this new reaction a "bursting" of the uranium nucleus. Frisch and Meitner hypothesized that the uranium nucleus had split in two, explained the process, estimated the energy released, and Frisch coined the term fission to describe it. Political restraints of the Nazi era forced the team of Hahn and that of Frisch and Meitner (both of whom were Jewish) to publish separately. Hahn's paper described the experiment and the finding of the barium byproduct. Meitner's and Frisch's paper explained the physics behind the phenomenon. Frisch went back to Copenhagen, where he was quickly able to isolate the fragments produced by fission reactions. As Frisch himself later recalls, a fundamental idea of the direct experimental proof of the nuclear fission was suggested to him by George Placzek.
In the Summer of 1939 Frisch left Denmark for what he anticipated would be a short trip to Birmingham, but the outbreak of World War II precluded his return. With war on his mind, he and the physicist Rudolf Peierls produced the Frisch–Peierls memorandum, which was the first document to set out a process by which an atomic explosion could be generated. Their process would use separated Uranium-235, which would require a fairly small critical mass and could be made to achieve criticality using conventional explosives to create an immensely powerful detonation. The memorandum went on to predict the effects of such an explosion — from the initial blast to the resulting fallout. This memorandum was the basis of British work on building an atomic device (the Tube Alloys project) and also that of the Manhattan Project on which Frisch worked as part of the British delegation. He went to America in 1943 having been hurriedly made a British citizen.
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